This guide is founded on the Publication Manual associated with the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. It provides selected citation examples for common kinds of sources. For more in depth information please consult a print copy for the style manual.
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Review the Sample paper through the APA, with samples of many APA rules.
Keep track of your document references/citations and format your reference lists easily with citation management software.
Number all pages consecutively, starting with the title page, in Arabic numerals (e.g., 4, not IV) when you look at the upper right-hand corner (Rule 8.03, p. 230).
You will need to cite and document any sources if you presented the ideas from these sources in your own words that you have consulted, even. You will need to cite:
- to determine other people’s ideas and information used in your essay.
- to tell your reader of one’s paper where they ought to look if they would you like to find the sources that are same.
A citation must appear in two places in your essay:
- best professionals
- in the human body of the text (“in-text citations”).
- In the reference list (at the final end of one’s paper).
To introduce other individuals’s ideas in text, utilize the following examples:
Richardson argues, relates to, explains, hypothesizes, compares, concludes; As Littlewood and Sherwin demonstrated, proved, . etc.
Spelling: Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary print or online is the standard spelling reference for APA journals and books (Rule 4.12, p. 96).
Reference in text
Capitalize all words that are major titles of books and articles within the body associated with the paper (Rule 4.15, p.101). E.g.
In his book Greek Political Thought (2006), Balot argues that. The criticism for the article, “The Politics of Paraliterary Criticism”.
NOTE: In reference lists, however, capitalize only the word that is first of title and of the subtitle (after a colon or em dash) and proper nouns.
When quoting from print sources or articles that are online give the author, year, and page number in parentheses (Rule 6.03, pp.170-171). For instance:
Mooney (2000) unearthed that . “direct_quotation” (p. 276). “Direct_quotation”. (Walker, 2000, p. 135).
If the quotation has ended 40 words, you have to start the quotation on a unique line, indent the quotation about Ѕ an inch, and omit the quotation marks (Rule 6.03, p. 171).
Prince Edward Island is a slice that is curved of from three to thirty-five miles wide and about one hundred and twenty miles long, lying across the southern rim associated with Gulf of St. Lawrence and separated through the mainland of brand new Brunswick and Nova Scotia because of the narrow waters of Northumberland Strait.(Ives, 1999, p. 1)
When paraphrasing from a source, or when talking about an basic idea contained in another work, you might be encouraged to produce a typical page number (Rule 6.04 p. 171).
When citing the author that is same times in a paragraph, see Citing Paraphrased work with APA Style from the APA Style Blog.
Many sources that are electronic not provide page numbers. In this full case, use paragraph numbers preceded by the abbreviation ‘para.’ (Rule 6.05 pp. 171-172). For example:
(Johnson, 2003, para. 5).
If a source contains neither page nor paragraph numbers, cite the heading (shorten the heading if it’s long) (Rule 6.05 pp. 171-172).
If you have no date of publication, use the abbreviation (n.d.).
List a couple of works by different authors who will be cited within the same parentheses in alphabetical order because of the first authors’ surnames and place semicolons between them (Rule 6.16 p. 177).
In APA, the menu of sources in the final end regarding the paper (bibliography) is known as the reference list. All references must be included by the reference list cited within the text of your paper.
The phrase References should appear near the top of your reference list, and it also must certanly be centred from the page (Rule 2.11, p. 37).
Order of references in the reference list is alphabetical, by the last name regarding the author that is firstRule 6.25, p. 181) or, if author is certainly not available – by title.
Alphabetize letter by letter. “Nothing precedes something”. ‘Brown, J. R.’ comes before ‘Browning, A. F.’.
When it comes to author’s first name use only initials: ‘Smith, J.’, not ‘Smith, Jennifer’.
For all functions by the author that is same them in your reference list by year of publication because of the earliest first – Smith, A. (1999) . Smith, A. (2002)
Second and subsequent lines of every entry are indented 1/2 inch or 5 spaces. The chosen format must certanly be consistent through the references.
Double-space between all lines of your work, including references.
When citing books (not periodicals), capitalize just the first word of the title and of the subtitle (in other words. the first word after a colon or a dash) and proper nouns (Rule 6.29, p. 185).
If more than one city of publication is placed in the written book you will be citing, utilize the first one listed.
If you have no date of publication, utilize the abbreviation (n.d.).